Camille Lefebvre, « L'Afrique n'est pas victime de ses frontières »,, Article contenant un appel à traduction en anglais, licence Creative Commons attribution, partage dans les mêmes conditions, comment citer les auteurs et mentionner la licence, Ėtablissement du protectorat du Nigéria du Nord. La victoire attire de nombreux aventuriers du royaume du Fouta-Toro, de l'empire du Macina et du Songhaï qui viennent renforcer ses rangs. The emergence of Sokoto Caliphate in the 19th Century A.D. gave the Sharia a new outlook altogether in Nigeria; it became supreme in every sphere of life:- Government, Economy, Foreign Policy, Administration of Justice and the organization of society.1 The Sokoto Caliphate represents probably the most ambitious attempt in Sokoto lands within the British Empire.. Usman, qui compare sa fuite à celle de l'hégire de Mahomet, pr… Adamawa Bauchi Daura Gombe Hadejia Jama'are Jema'a Kano Katagum Katsina ), History of West Africa (London, 1974), II. Also see Hogben, S. J. and Kirk-Greene, A. H. M., The Emirates of Northern Nigeria (London, 1966), 447, 449.Google Scholar, 59 Mason, , ‘Trade and State’, cited in n. 6Google Scholar; and Mason, , ‘Captive and Client Labour’, 465.Google Scholar, 60 Hogendorn, J. S., Northern Nigerian Groundnut Exports (Zaria, forthcoming).Google Scholar. The jihad resulted is the establishment of an Islamic state of Sokoto Caliphate, the … At a time when coastal West Africa was responding to the growth of ‘legitimate’ trade, the Sokoto Caliphate was experiencing dramatic expansion in the plantation sector. Sokoto State is one of the 36 States of Nigeria, located in the extreme northwest of the country on the national border with the Republic of the Niger.Its capital and largest city, the city of Sokoto, its capital and largest city.Sokoto is located near to the confluence of the Sokoto River and the Rima River.As of 2005 it has an estimated population of more than 4.2 million. Le 21 février 1804, l'imam peul Usman dan Fodio, menacé par Younfa, roi du Gober, s’enfuit à Gudu. 26 Usman, , ‘Katsina’, 122–3.Google Scholar, 27 Usman, , ‘Katsina’, 453–4.Google Scholar, 28 Lovejoy-Maccido Collection; Ferguson, , ‘Imam Imoru’, 80.Google Scholar, 29 Ferguson, , ‘Imam Imor’, 80Google Scholar; Nadama, , ‘Zamfara’.Google Scholar, 30 This analysis conflicts with that of Polly Hill, who considers that Zaria is outside the core-region; ‘Slavery to Freedom’, 406–7.Google Scholar, 31 For a discussion of the Agalawa, Tokarawa, Kambarin Beriberi, and other traders, see Lovejoy, and Baier, , ‘Desert-Side Econom’, 551–81Google Scholar; Lovejoy, , Caravans of Kola, chs. Physical description 2 v. : maps ; 23 cm. Le djihad n'est pas géographiquement uniforme, mais prend la forme de conflits localisés, avec des circulations d’idées[3]. 25 Shea, , ‘Black Cloth’Google Scholar, quoting C. W. J. Orr, Trade Prospects, 26 Oct. 1904, C.O. 2 For earlier discussions of the Central Sudan economy, see Lovejoy, P. E. and Baier, S., ‘The Desert-Side Economy of the Central Sudan’, Intern. More were established later; see Lugard, , Political Memoranda, 302.Google Scholar, 49 Low, Victor N., Three Nigerian Emirates. An estimated 1-2.5 million non-Muslim slaves were captured during the Fulani War. Selon l'historien Vincent Hiribarren, Ousmane Dan Fodio est encore au Nigeria comme au Niger une référence historique, à la fois parce qu’il a mené ce djihad, mais aussi une référence intellectuelle, en raison de ses projets de réformateur sur les territoires qu'il envahissait[3]. Hostname: page-component-7d4b4df4cc-4b4dx Vassal cities of the empire gradually became autonomous, and the result by 1780 was a political array of independent states in the region. En novembre 1842, Ali, fils de Mohammed Bello, prend le pouvoir à Sokoto à la mort d’Atikou, jusqu'en 1855. Sokoto Caliphate. It is these changes especially on religion that will be given considerations in this paper. Ce nouveau succès attire auprès de lui les musulmans du Nigeria et du Cameroun septentrionaux, ainsi que des Peuls métissés établis depuis longtemps dans la région. 36 Hogendorn, , ‘Two Plantations’Google Scholar; Smith, , ‘Slavery and Emancipation’; 239–80Google Scholar; Shea, , ‘Dyed-Cloth Industry’Google Scholar; Lovejoy, , Caravans of Kola, chapter VGoogle Scholar; Lovejoy, and Baier, , ‘Desert-Side Economy’, 566, 568–9Google Scholar; Baier, and Lovejoy, , ‘Tuareg’, 401, 406–7Google Scholar; and interviews conducted at Kudan, , Makarfi, , Hunkuyi, and Zaria, , Lovejoy-Maccido Collection, 1976.Google Scholar, 37 Hill, , ‘Slavery to Freedom’, 417–20.Google Scholar, 38 Lovejoy, , Caravans of Kola, chapter V.Google Scholar, 39 Musa na Madabo, Tape 14, Lovejoy Collection, 1969–70, but also see Lovejoy, , Caravans of Kola.Google Scholar. For interaction between the Sokoto Caliphate and Masina, see Stewart, C. C., ‘Frontier Disputes and Problems of Legitimation: Sokoto–Masina Relations, 1817–1837’, J. Afr. XV (1974), 563–85CrossRefGoogle Scholar; Lovejoy, P. E., Caravans of Kola: Hausa Trade with Asante, 1700–1900 (Zaria, forthcoming)Google Scholar; Baier, S., ‘African Merchants in the Colonial Period: A History of Commerce in Damagaram (Central Niger), 1880–1960’, Ph.D. thesis, unpublished, University of Wisconsin, 1974Google Scholar; and Shea, Philip, ‘The Development of an Export Oriented Dyed Cloth Industry in Kano Emirate in the Nineteenth Century’, Ph.D. thesis, unpublished, University of Wisconsin, 1975Google Scholar. Author: Ibrahim … This ethnic approach fails to account for class differences which are partially disguised in those terms and it suggests a geographical separation which did not exist; see ‘Slavery to Freedom’, 402, 406–7.Google Scholar, 46 See the forthcoming study of Stewart, C. C. on Bello's policies. : document utilisé comme source pour la rédaction de cet article. Besides promoting the economic growth of the capital districts of Sokoto and Gwandu, Bello's policy encouraged the expansion of the textile belt in southern Kano and northern Zaria. Newsdesk - October 9, 2020 0. ), Slavery in Africa: Historical and Anthropological Perspectives (Madison, 1977Google Scholar); Johnson, , ‘Economic Foundations of Masina’, 488–9Google Scholar; and a number of the papers presented at the conference on Islamic Africa: Slavery and Related Institutions, Princeton University, 1977, especially Lovejoy, Paul E., ‘The Characteristics of Plantations in the Sokoto Caliphate’Google Scholar; Levtzion, Nehemia, ‘Slavery and Islamization in Africa: A Comparative Study’Google Scholar; Klein, Martin, ‘Domestic Slavery in the Muslim Societies of Western Sudan’Google Scholar; Willis, John Ralph, ‘The Servile Estate’Google Scholar; Milliard, Constance B., ‘Slave Status among the Futanke: A Preliminary View Derived from the Shaikh Mūsā Kamara Papers’Google Scholar; Conrad, David C., ‘Slavery in Bambara Society: Segou, 1660–1861’Google Scholar; O'Fahey, R. S., ‘Slavery and Society in Dār Fūr’Google Scholar; Hunwick, J. O., ‘Notes on Slavery in the Songhay Empire’Google Scholar; and Sanneh, L. O., ‘Islamic Slavery in the African Perspective’.Google Scholar, 5 Hopkins, , Economic History, 124–66Google Scholar. The caliphate was a loose confederation of emirates that recognized the suzeraintyof the Amir al-Mu'minin, the Sultan of Sokoto. Also see numerous interviews in the Yusufu Yunusa, Aliyu Bala Umar, and Aliyu Musa Collections, all largely on Kano Emirate and part of the Economic History Project. October 4, … The Caliphate fell to the British army in 1903 and was incorporated into its “protectorate” in northern Nigeria. J. Afr. The structure and economy of the caliphate. Studies, XIII (1975). Sa population est de l'ordre de dix millions d'habitants. Nupe and Yola were drawn more closely into the world market through the greater use of the Niger and Benue rivers, but these changes only marginally affected the wider Caliphate economy. Il s'étendait principalement entre le nord du Nigeria et le nord du Cameroun actuels, et sa capitale était la ville de Sokoto. Sokoto ranks second in Livestock production in the country with animal population of well over eight (8) million.The availability of these economic potentials provide good investment opportunities, particularly in agro-allied industries such as flour mills, tomato processing , sugar refining, textiles, glue, tanning, fish canning, dairy etc. The Overthrow of the Sarauta System and the Establishment and Evolution of the Emirate’, Ph.D. thesis, unpublished, Ahmadu Bello University, 1974Google Scholar; Ferguson, Douglas Edwin, ‘Nineteenth-Century Hausaland, being a description by Imam Imoru of the Land, Economy, and Society of his People’, Ph.D. thesis, unpublished, UCLA, 1973Google Scholar; Nadama, Garba, ‘A Struggle for Survival: Zamfara in the Eighteenth Century’, Ph.D. thesis, Ahmadu Bello University, forthcoming.Google Scholar, 9 Abubakar, Saad, ‘A Survey of the Economy of the Eastern Emirates of the Sokoto Caliphate in the Nineteenth Century’, unpublished paper presented at the Sokoto Seminar, Departments of History, Ahmadu Bello University and Bayero University College, Sokoto, 1975.Google Scholar, 10 Mason, , ‘Captive and Client Labour’, 453–71Google Scholar; Mason, , ‘Trade and State’Google Scholar; Gavin, R. J., ‘The Economy of Ilorin’, unpublished seminar paper, University of Birmingham, 1976Google Scholar; Balogun, S. A., ‘Economic Activities and Ties of Gwandu Emirates and Their Neighbours in the Nineteenth Century’, Kano Seminar, 1976Google Scholar; and Irwin, J., ‘An Emirate of the Niger Bend: A Political History of Liptako in the Nineteenth Century’, Ph.D. thesis, unpublished, University of Wisconsin, 1973, 18–19.Google Scholar, 11 Lovejoy, , ‘Interregional Monetary Flows’, 563–85Google Scholar; and Hogendorn, J. S., ‘Slave Acquisition and Delivery in Precolonial Hausaland’, in Dumett, R. and Schwartz, Ben K. Des Peuls se joignent à lui, mais aussi de nombreux Haoussas séduits par son discours, faisant d'ailleurs de son armée une troupe à majorité haoussa. Améliorez sa vérifiabilité en les associant par des références à l'aide d'appels de notes. "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, 41 For the practices of murgu and self-purchase, see Hogendorn, , ‘Two Plantations’Google Scholar; Smith, , Hausa Communities, 102–3Google Scholar; Hill, , ‘Slavery to Freedom’, 399Google Scholar; Lugard, , Political Memoranda, 306–8Google Scholar; and various interviews in the Yunusa Collection, 1975; Maccido Collection, 1975. « le plus grand État d’Afrique depuis l’effondrement de l’, « Le califat consolidait une région qui comptait de nombreux États et beaucoup d’ethnies différentes en un seul empire divisé en 33 émirats, sous la direction de la capitale duale de Sokoto et de, « le djihad de Sokoto engloba tout l’espace du, « son influence s’étendit encore plus largement et existe encore aujourd’hui ». }, Copyright © Cambridge University Press 1978. Get Book. Slavery in Sokoto City. 14 For a discussion of jihad and its aftermath, see Last, Murray, The Sokoto Caliphate (London, 1967Google Scholar); Usman, , ‘Katsina’Google Scholar; and Nadama, , ‘Zamfara’Google Scholar. Le 21 février 1804, l'imam peul Usman dan Fodio, menacé par Younfa, roi du Gober, senfuit à Gudu. Also see Smith, M. G., The Economy of Hausa Communities of Zaria (London, 1955), 81–2, 102–8Google Scholar; Smith, , ‘Slavery and Emancipation in Two Societies’, in Smith, M. G., The Plural Society in the British West Indies (Berkeley and Los Angeles, 1965), 116–61Google Scholar; Mason, Michael, ‘Captive and Client Labour and the Economy of the Bida Emirate, 1857–1901’, J. Afr. Search. The Sokoto Caliphate was founded by an Islamic teacher Uthman Dan Fodio in the year 1804 who later became the first Sultan of Sokoto (Sarkin Muksulmi – Commander of the Faithful). Le califat de Sokoto est un État fortement décentralisé dirigé par le calife, dont les compagnons sont placés comme émirs à la tête de chaque subdivision territoriale[6]. Un article de Wikipédia, l'encyclopédie libre. Sanderson, G. N. Available online At the library. He stated this while welcoming the... Read more. A Woman of the Moslem Hausa (London, 1954), 37–40Google Scholar; Smith, , ‘Slavery and Emancipation’, 116–61Google Scholar; Smith, , Hausa Communities, 102–8Google Scholar; Lovejoy, , Caravans of Kola, ch. Son but, qu'il est explique dans l'un de ses livres les plus importants, Kitab Al-Farq, est la purification de l'islam dans les territoires musulmans[1], qui passe par une observance stricte et la lutte contre la bid’ah (l’innovation)[1]. The maps were drawn by the cartography section of the Department of Geography, York University. La dernière modification de cette page a été faite le 5 mars 2021 à 23:52. ... economy and society; v. 2. By the time of his death in 1817, he had established an Empire based on some thirty emirates administered from Sokoto, the seat of his Caliphate. Published online by Cambridge University Press:  1 The research for this paper was supported by the Canadian Social Science Research Council, a grant from the Ahmadu Bello University Research Board and the History Dept. Thus the following are the impact of the Fulani jihad on the economy of the Sokoto caliphate in the 19 th century; Provided an Economic Model for the Sokoto Caliphate Indeed, the Fulani Jihad provided the economic model upon which the Sokoto Caliphate was built on. The first six years of jihad (1804-1810) were fundamental in the creation of a political and religious foundation for a state that was never an empire, but a collection of territories under the authority of the caliph in Sokoto. 62 Baier, , ‘Local Transport’.Google Scholar, 63 Hogendorn, , Groundnut Exports, explores the rise of peasant production in the export sectorGoogle Scholar. When the British took over the territory in 1903, they abolished the political authority of the Caliph and put the area under the Northern Nigeria Protectorate; however, the title of Sultan was retained. Although he refused a titular name, leaders after him called themselves the “Sultan of Sokoto”. The original emirates of the Sokoto Caliphate have been re-organized into various states with the federation of Nigeria. The result was the greater integration of the Central Sudan region into a single economic zone. PLANTATIONS IN THE ECONOMY OF THE SOKOTO CALIPHATE BY PAUL E. LOVEJOY Introduction THE Sokoto Caliphate was the largest and most populous state in nine-teenth-century West Africa, yet the functioning of its economy remains largely unknown.1 Its foundation (I804-8) … Le 21 juin 1804, il remporte la victoire sur l’armée de Younfa à Tabkin Kwato. "metricsAbstractViews": false, This economic model was built on the economic ideals of Usmandanfodio. Les Britanniques développent un modèle de gouvernement des populations colonisées à travers les rois et les princes locaux, et conservent la pyramide hiérarchique en place : le sultan n’est plus sultan par la grâce de Dieu, mais parce que les Britanniques lui ont donné un sceptre[3]. Under British colonial rule the city was the headquarters of the Sokoto Province, and remained so after independence until it became the capital of the Northwestern State from 1967 until 1976, when Sokoto State was created. Also see Hogendorn, , ‘Two Plantations’.Google Scholar, 22 Usman, , ‘Katsina’, 426.Google Scholar, 23 Lovejoy, , Caravans of Kola, chapter VGoogle Scholar; Baier, Stephen and Lovejoy, Paul E., ‘The Tuareg of the Central Sudan: Gradations in Servility at the Desert Edge (Niger and Nigeria’, in Miers, Suzanne and Kopytoff, Igor, eds., Slavery in Africa) (Madison, Wisconsin 1977), 407Google Scholar; Usman, , ‘Katsina’, 431Google Scholar; and Barth, Heinrich, Travels and Discoveries in North and Central Africa (New York, 1857–9), I. Hist. Author: Hussaini Usman Malami Publisher: ISBN: Size: 54.65 MB Format: PDF, Kindle Category : Fula Empire Languages : en Pages : 145 View: 7232 Book Description: The Rights Of Widows And Divorcees In Hausa Fulani Society. Hist. XIV (1973), 633–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar. After his death he was succeeded by his son, Mohamed Bello. 1985. Home SECURITY AND CRIME Sokoto Insecurity: Senator Wamakko Donates105 Motorcycles to Vigilante Groups in 21 Sokoto... SECURITY AND CRIME. In addition, the Sokoto leaders, despite their intentions, were not able to prevent the enslavement of freeborn Muslims. The sultan of Sokoto (Siddiq Abubakar III) continued to be regarded as the spiritual leader of the Muslim community of Nigeria. The caliphate was a loose confederation of emirates that recognized the suzerainty of the Amir al-Mu'minin, the Sultan of Sokoto. Green Library. Les Haoussa, encouragés par les Touareg de l’Aïr et par le souverain du Kanem et du Bornou, rejettent la suzeraineté théocratique de Sokoto et son islam rigoriste. XIV (1973), 453–71CrossRefGoogle Scholar; Mason, ‘Trade and State in Nineteenth Century Nupe’, unpublished paper presented at the Seminar on the Economic History of the Central Savanna of West Africa, Kano, 1976 (hereafter referred to as Kano Seminar, 1976); Hill, Polly, ‘From Slavery to Freedom: The Case of Farm-Slavery in Nigerian Hausaland’, Comparative Studies in Society and History, XVIII (1976), 395–426CrossRefGoogle Scholar; and Hogendorn, J. S., ‘The Economics of Slave Use on Two ‘Plantations’ in the Zaria Emirate of the Sokoto Caliphate’, Intern. Also see Abubakar, , ‘Economy of Eastern Emirates’Google Scholar; and Abubakar, , Fombina.Google Scholar, 51 There is no adequate study of plantations in Ilorin, but for a survey of the Ilorin economy at the end of the century see Gavin, , ‘Ilorin’Google Scholar; and interviews in the Adesiyin Collection, 1975. Il incluait aussi plus de vingt sous-émirats dans l’empire d’Adamawa, également connu sous le nom de Fombina, dont la capitale était Yola sur la rivière Bénoué[1]. Extensive data on the plantation system are also contained in oral testimonies collected during the Economic History Project, Ahmadu Bello University, 1975–6. Caliphate Tech Community is aimed at equipping the people of Sokoto especially youths, with the basic and most advanced knowledge and skills that they need to excel in this modern and contemporary world of 21st Century, learnt. The best published account remains Last, ‘Bello's Social Policy’, 56–9.Google Scholar, 47 For a summary of political events, see Adeleye, R. A., ‘The Sokoto Caliphate in the Nineteenth Century’, in Ajayi, J. F. A. and Crowder, M. Ses douze plus fidèles disciples reçoivent des étendards bénits avec lesquels ils sont envoyés à la conquête des territoires voisins. Plantations (gandu, rinji, tungazi), which used slaves captured by the Caliphate armies, were established near all the major towns and were particularly important around Sokoto, Kano, Zaria and other capitals. Hamza, Ibrahim "figures": false, Feature Flags: { Get Book. Stronger links with the world economy did develop in parts of the Caliphate towards the end of the nineteenth century. L'établissement de l'empire de Sokoto s'inscrit dans la lignée des gouvernements musulmans mis en place à partir du XVIIIe siècle à l'issue de luttes ouvertement prosélytes présentées comme des actions de djihad, mouvement dans lequel il occupe une place centrale. Full text views reflects PDF downloads, PDFs sent to Google Drive, Dropbox and Kindle and HTML full text views. Le 13 avril 1827 l’explorateur britannique Hugh Clapperton meurt à Sokoto, où il était reçu par Mohammed Bello. A more detailed analysis of the material is forthcoming. These changes were in different sectors of life from politics, economy to social and religious aspect. The Sokoto Caliphate : history and legacies, 1804-2004. 40 Muhammadu Kasori, Tape 14; but also see Miko Hamshak'i, Tape 12, and Bako Madigawa and Audu Ba'are, Tape 12, Lovejoy Collection, 1969–70. Legislative and executive functions of government passed to local, state and federal bodies. Usman, qui compare sa fuite à celle de l'hégire de Mahomet, prêche la guerre sainte (djihad) contre les impies de toute sorte et en particulier contre les rois des cités haoussas, qu'il accuse de ne pas appliquer les vrais principes de l'islam. These elite slaves held administrative and military positions of great power, and over the course of the nineteenth century played an increasing prominent role in the political, economic, and social life of Kano. L'économie de cet empire peul était fondée sur le commerce et l'esclavage. Sokoto has continuously served as a capital for more than 200 years from its first appointment as the seat of the Fulani Caliphate in 1809. Il cherchait aussi à éliminer les injustices sociales introduites par des gouvernements oppressifs[1]. 61 Interviews in the Yunusa Collection, 1975. Selon l'historien Paul Lovejoy (en), l'établissement du califat en tant que fédération était révolutionnaire : « Le califat consolidait une région qui comptait de nombreux États et beaucoup d’ethnies différentes en un seul empire divisé en 33 émirats, sous la direction de la capitale duale de Sokoto et de Gwandu après 1817 ». À cette époque, des troubles éclatent dans plusieurs provinces de l’empire. for this article. Render date: 2021-03-20T01:29:04.632Z Download: [PDF] economic principles and practices of the sokoto caliphate Economic Principles And Practices Of The Sokoto Caliphate. ECONOMY. For a comparison with other savanna areas, see especially Johnson, Marion, ‘The Economic Foundations of an Islamic Theocracy—The Case of Masina’, J. Afr. 35 Hogendorn, , ‘Two Plantations’Google Scholar; Smith, Mary, Baba of Karo. Bibliographic information. Edition 1st ed. These collections total more than 100 hours of interviews and number several hundred sessions. The Kingdom of Nupe in Nigeria (London, 1942), 36–7, 196–7Google Scholar, and Lugard, , Political Memoranda, 300–1.Google Scholar, 52 Lugard, , Political Memoranda, 303.Google Scholar, 53 Irwin, , ‘Liptako’, 18–9.Google Scholar. The Sokoto Caliphate was an independent Islamic Caliphate, in West Africa.Founded during the jihad of the Fulani War in 1809 by Usman dan Fodio, [1] it was abolished when the British defeated the caliph in 1903 and put the area under the Northern Nigeria Protectorate.. "newCitedByModal": true For Nupe, see Mason, , ‘Captive and Client Labour’, 453–71Google Scholar; Mason, , ‘Trade and State’Google Scholar; Nadel, S. F., A Black Byzantium. Develope 54 A full exploration of this theme is beyond the scope of this article, but attention should be drawn to the forthcoming work of David Tambo. The Emir pays annual tribute and homage to the Sultan in Sokoto, which was then, the capital city of the Sokoto Caliphate. L'exploitation des mines de sel du nord du califat était fondée sur le travail servile, tout comme les industries du fer, coton, indigo ou cuir des régions centrales du califat. Il désigne des émirs pour administrer les territoires conquis, le plus souvent les souverains vaincus, confirmés dans leur fonction. Sokoto Insecurity: Senator Wamakko Donates105 Motorcycles to Vigilante Groups in 21 Sokoto LGs. The Sokoto Caliphate was a sovereign Sunni Muslim caliphate in West Africa that was founded during the jihad of the Fulani War in 1804 by Usman dan Fodio. Mohammed Bello meurt en 1837, marquant la fin de la première génération de dirigeants du djihad[1]. The Kingdom of Nupe in Nigeria. Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. Il fut le plus grand État d’Afrique (derrière l'Empire ottoman) depuis l’effondrement de l’Empire songhaï (vers 1592), et le deuxième plus grand État musulman au monde jusqu’à la conquête européenne de 1897 à 1903[1]. (ed. Hist. 42 Smith, M. G., ‘Hausa Inheritance and Succession’, in Derrett, J. D. M. The Sokoto Caliphate was an independent Islamic Caliphate, in West Africa.Founded during the jihad of the Fulani War in 1809 by Usman dan Fodio, [1] it was abolished when the British defeated the caliph in 1903 and put the area under the Northern Nigeria Protectorate.. Stilwell, Sean 446/43 (1907), no. Today Nigeria is Africa’s most populous country. Similarly, the desert-side market in grain also benefited from the emphasis on plantations. Responsibility edited by H. Bobboyi, A.M. Yakubu. 191.Google Scholar, 57 Barth, , Travels, ii. Other differences included a system of Islamic slavery which encouraged emancipation, a close connexion with slave raiding and distribution, and a system of land tenure which often resulted in fragmented holdings. En 1815, Usman transmet le titre de sultan de Sokoto à son fils Mohammed Bello.

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